THE PAGDENS

Victorian Studio Photos
Victorian Studio Photos


The former Padgen Brewery
The former Padgen Brewery now called Church House, Church Street
Photograph courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Introduction

As we know from Brian Bouchard's article on the Brewery in Church Street, the Pagdens were brewing in Epsom for over a century, starting in 1817 when Trayton Peter and Stephen Pagden bought the premises. As Brian said, the Pagden brothers were drapers in Brighton at the time and he then told us something about the Wigneys (Trayton's wife being Martha Wigney), who had brewing interests.

Pagden origins

The Pagdens were farming folk from and in East Sussex for generations, but we needn't go all the way back - just to Chiddingly, which is a village in the Low Weald of East Sussex, about 5 miles north of Hailsham. Peter Pagden, the father of Trayton Peter and Stephen, farmed at Chiddingly and was buried at the churchyard there in 1819. It looks as if he reared livestock, particularly Southdown sheep (first bred at Glynde, near Lewes), although it would be tempting to fantasise that he grew some hops.

Records show that Trayton and Stephen were apprenticed to Brighton drapers as young lads: Trayton was indentured in 1803 to one Richard Tamplin and Stephen in 1806 to a William Newbold. I am not sure where Tamplin had his drapery business but there is mention of a firm of linen drapers called Tamplin & James who may have been in North Street. We do know where Mr Newbold was, though, since his unassuming little shop at 15 North Street (apparently built c. 1770 on the site of a garden) has been a major bone of contention in Brighton - more for the fact that it was very old than any architectural or aesthetic merit. It's been demolished now, to make a new entrance to The Lanes and expose Puget's Cottage, a rather better old building, part of which is late 17th or early18th century, which had been hidden behind it for two centuries. In fact, it is thought to be the 'owner' of the garden on which Number 15 was built.

15 North Street, Brighton
15 North Street, Brighton (Timpson), photographed in September 2015.
Image © Linda Jackson 2018

The master draper we're after, though, is not William Newbold but Richard Tamplin, who was brother-in-law to Trayton and Stephen via his marriage in 1800 to their sister Elizabeth. He was also a brewer and owned a bank. I don't know exactly when Richard Tamplin began brewing but he bought the Southwick Brewery in 1820 - Southwick is technically in West Sussex, but only about 5 miles west of Brighton, between Hove and Shoreham - and lost it almost immediately. The brewery was thatched, he hadn't yet insured it and the place went up in flames. Undeterred, he and his son, Henry Pagden Tamplin, started up the Phoenix Brewery in Brighton, from which you will gather that they had some financial muscle, and it went from strength to strength. At one point in the 19th century Tamplin's owned 200 local pubs and, although the business was ultimately consumed by Watney Mann, the name lives on here and there in Brighton.

The Victory Inn, Middle Street/Duke Street, Brighton
The Victory Inn, Middle Street/Duke Street, Brighton, formerly a Tamplin pub, photographed in 2012.
Image © Linda Jackson 2018

Documents held by the Surrey History Centre (catalogue reference 831/26-27) indicate that Richard Tamplin was trustee for Stephen and Trayton Pagden when they acquired the Church Street Brewery and other premises in 1817.

Before we leave the wider Pagden family, we need to visit Folkington, which is roughly ten miles south of Chiddingly, and also Alfriston, to bookmark some more farming brothers of Trayton and Stephen. The Folkington man was John Pagden (1797-1851) and the children we want are Elizabeth Ann (born 1833), Catherine (1835) and, to a lesser extent, Frederick John (1832). The Alfriston brother was Henry William Pagden (1780-1847) who farmed at Frog Firle, which is now National Trust property; we shall need his son, James William (born 1814 Jevington).

The Wigneys

Trayton married Martha Wigney on 12 May 1813 at St Nicholas, Brighton. Martha's father was Yorkshireman William Wigney, a draper, brewer and banker, who was a wealthy and prominent figure, so Martha was 'a catch'.

Mr Wigney's initial enterprise in Brighton seems to have been a drapery business, which is described in a 1787 advertisement as being 'Wigney's Muslin Warehouse' at 54 Castle Square, Brighthelmston. Castle Square doesn't look like one now, since it has a main road running straight through it, but I understand that wasn't always so. Mr Wigney advertised disposal of those premises in 1799 and I believe he moved to North Street, which runs up from Castle Square, but none of his addresses are crucial, since they were all broadly in an area around the outskirts of The Lanes, so he didn't actually go very far.

The Wigney brewery was apparently at 21 Ship Street (another address in The Lanes area), now re-numbered as 27: it has been substantially rebuilt and remodelled as a Victorian pub, but the original building is said to have dated back to the early 16th century. Although it has gone through several different incarnations and makeovers, it still has a connection close to its original function, now specialising in craft beers.

The site of the Wigney Brewery
The Seven Stars pub, 27 (formerly 21) Ship Street, Brighton, on the site of the Wigney Brewery
Image © Linda Jackson 2018

It was common in those days for successful tradesmen to set up banks, but it was a risky business for the customers. In Brighton, where William Wigney had the Brighthelmston Bank (Wigney & Co), all but two failed in the big financial crash of 1825, William's establishment being one of the survivors. It didn't survive for that long, though, and, when William died in 1836, the business was taken over by his sons, Isaac Newton and Clement Wigney (another son, George, was running the brewery operation).

A Brighthelmston Bank £ 5 Note
A Brighthelmston Bank £ 5 Note
Image courtesy of Royal Pavilion & Museums, Brighton & Hove (13923) (CC BY-SA)

Isaac Newton Wigney was twice elected an MP for Brighton and was married to a granddaughter of John Walter, founder of The Times newspaper. However, thanks to his financial mismanagement, the bank went under in 1842, ruining many customers, and Isaac was forced to resign his seat, dying two years later.

Just a final word about William Wigney. One of his pubs/hotels still stands in Waterloo Street, Hove. It was originally The Kerrison Arms, named after a local worthy who served under Wellington; it then became The Iron Duke and, until very recently, when it became The Southern Belle, it bore the plaque shown below.

Plaque on The Iron Duke
Plaque on The Iron Duke
Photograph by Jez Nicholson via Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0)

The Iron Duke, now The Southern Belle, photographed c.2013.
The Iron Duke, now The Southern Belle, photographed c.2013.
Image © Linda Jackson 2018

Trayton and Martha

We haven't quite finished with Brighton because, even when residents of Epsom, Trayton and Martha liked to have the children baptised there, specifically at the Union Street Chapel, which is in the heart of The Lanes. This very old building has been through the hands of many religious persuasions and, appositely for brewers, it is currently a pub/bar called The Font. Like everything else, it has been remodelled and generally messed with and nobody is too sure when exactly it was built and who did what to it when, but much of the original exterior survives: it was a large place of worship and it seems that the internal Corinthian columns are original (not with their modern-day 'décor').

Exterior of The Font pub, formerly the Union Street Chapel
Exterior of The Font pub, formerly the Union Street Chapel
Image © Linda Jackson 2018

Plaque on the exterior of The Font pub, formerly the Union Street Chapel
Plaque on the exterior of The Font pub, formerly the Union Street Chapel
Image © Linda Jackson 2018

Interior of The Font pub, formerly the Union Street Chapel, photographed in 2012
Interior of The Font pub, formerly the Union Street Chapel, photographed in 2012
Image © Linda Jackson 2018

The children of Trayton and Martha were as shown below.

NameInformation
Sophia1814-86. Married 1838 John Turner Rawlison, solicitor (died 1869).
Ann Elizabeth1815-38. Married 1836 Robert Chatfield, farmer (died 1862)
Trayton1818-61. Married 1845 Jane Selina Bowen (died 1847).
William1820-95. Solicitor. Married 1846 Anna Maria Edmunds (died 1901)
Emma1822-died in infancy
Robert1824-93. Brewer. Married 1856 Catherine Pagden. See later.
Charlotte1825-57. Married 1855 James William Pagden, farmer (died 1872).
Frederic1828-1904. Brewer. Married 1859 Frances Sarah Moates (died 1923). See later.
Laura1830-31
EllenDates unknown - died in infancy

Martha died in 1845 'after a long and painful illness'. Trayton survived until 14 September 1879. They are buried in an altar tomb in the churchyard of St Martin's, along with other members of their family. We shall deal with some of the children later in this article.

The Pagden Family Tomb in St Martin's Churchyard
The Pagden Family Tomb in St Martin's Churchyard
Image courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Stephen

Although Trayton and Stephen ran the business together, the former had a large family and Stephen was seemingly on his own, apart from a couple of female servants. He was unmarried, although he did have a long-time resident housekeeper, Miss Gasson, who ended up in the 1871 census described as 'companion', which may mean something or nothing at all. I mention her because we have a relevant photo with an enigmatic wrapper in the Cuthbert Hopkins collection of glass negatives. The original proposition was that this was 'Miss Gaston's maid, Pagdens', but there was no Miss Gaston, so the name is likely to be Gasson. Nor do I think it necessarily says 'maid' - it could be anything. I also note that the subject appears to be wearing a wedding ring, although that may simply be a family memento of some kind. There were only the two female servants at Stephen's, Miss Gasson and a Miss Elizabeth/Eliza Wood (housemaid) and if, as we think, these photos were taken in the early to mid-1860s, then Miss W would have been just over 30, whereas Miss G would have been 10 years older. The relative ages, different positions in the servant hierarchy and the clothing suggest that this is Miss Gasson herself.

Lady in Stephen Pagden's household, believed to be Eliza Gasson
Lady in Stephen Pagden's household, believed to be Eliza Gasson
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Miss Gasson was Stephen's housekeeper/companion from at least 1851 up to his death in 1876. Working backwards, she died aged 75, unmarried, in Thanet district on 25 January 1893, at which time she was living in Westgate-On-Sea, next door to Margate. Her executor was Henry James Graham, wine merchant (of Sutton), and her effects amounted to just over £ 373. In the 1881 census, the first one after Stephen's death, both she and Miss Wood were visitors to a builder and family in Margate. It's not clear if they knew the family or were just boarding. Both listed their 'occupation' as income from dividends. In 1891 Miss Gasson was at Westgate-On-Sea as a lodging house keeper, but Miss Wood wasn't there. The origin of Eliza Gasson has led me a merry dance, hampered by wavering ages and a birthplace that changed from Horsham to Crawley, but she has now been positively identified and we are back to non-conformists, this time at the Independent Chapel in Charlwood. Oddly, that did have something to do with Horsham, as the building was originally a wooden hut from Horsham Barracks, which was dismantled and moved - it's even Grade II* listed. Eliza's father died in 1821 and her mother in 1836, so she was orphaned before censuses got going and presumably had no real home.

A wooden Chapel at Charlwood
A wooden Chapel at Charlwood
Photograph by James Insell © and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.

According to the register, Eliza was born in Horsham on 12 April 1818 and baptised at Charlwood on 28 January 1820, daughter of Joseph and Mary Ann (nee Gravely) Gasson. She had several siblings and one of them, Harriet, was with her at the Sun Hotel, Crawley in the 1841 census. They looked to be working there, so this would probably be where Eliza learned about housekeeping. By 1851 she was with Stephen, who was then living in part of the Church Street premises; the only other resident was Sarah Agate, a housemaid from Lewes. By 1861 Miss Agate had gone and Miss Wood from Ifield (Crawley) was now the servant.

Stephen died on 6 December 1876, then living at Downside, Epsom. His will mainly left his property and money to a battalion of nieces and nephews, but there were a few interesting bequests. Firstly, he stipulated that his nephews, Robert and Frederic Pagden, who now ran the brewery, should decide within two months whether or not they wished to purchase the Amato public house at Woodcote. The original will, made in 1867, allotted to Miss Gasson £ 600 (roughly £ 66,000 today) 'in acknowledgement of her long and faithful service', plus she was to have a further £ 19.95, representing one year's wages (a fairly measly sum, about £ 2260 a year in today's terms - however, she presumably received free board etc). Miss Wood was to receive one year's wages, amounting to £ 12.

Miss Gasson was soon deemed to be more valuable than £ 619.95, for in 1870 Stephen added a codicil leaving her all his furniture, silver plate, glass, linen, china, pictures, clothes and everything else in the house (except the wine cellar, which went to Frederic P), plus all the plants in his greenhouse. It is hard to fathom what he thought she could do with some of this stuff, since she would be at least temporarily homeless on his demise, but perhaps they held carriage boot sales in those days. Stephen is buried in Epsom Cemetery (Grave D26A).

Robert and Frederic

The Downs Hotel c.1910
The Downs Hotel, Epsom c.1910
Photograph courtesy the Linda Jackson Collection.

You would imagine that, for many years, Trayton and Stephen were more than capable of running the brewery with the assistance of employed staff, so that Robert and Frederic would initially have been rather surplus to requirements. In fact, Robert was involved in a brewing enterprise at Batheaston, Somerset and in the 1851 census he was to be found there as a lodger with George Rawlison from Horsham: both men were described as brewers employing 5 men. They were running the Batheaston Brewery (established in 1792) and in 1860 George Rawlison retired from the business, which then came under the ownership of R & F Pagden. Rawlison, who was probably a brother of John Turner Rawlison (husband of Robert and Frederic's sister Sophia), had only taken over the brewery in 1850 and, despite his retirement, it seems that he retained ownership of the premises, since he advertised their sale by auction in 1869. In any event he died in 1872, having become a licensed victualler (The Stanhope Arms, 97 Gloucester Road, London SW7). By 1871 Trayton and Stephen had retired from brewing and I think that both Robert and Frederick had left Batheaston to take over the Church Street enterprise in the mid-1860s.

Continuing with Robert, he had married Catherine Pagden of Folkington in 1856: Catherine was a daughter of John, the Folkington farmer, so Robert and Catherine were first cousins. Catherine had a sister, Elizabeth Ann, and, their mother having died in 1869 (John Pagden had expired in 1851), by 1871 Elizabeth was living with Robert and Catherine at Woodcote End House (The Chalk Lane Hotel).

'Miss Pagden', believed to be Elizabeth Ann Pagden, sister of Mrs Robert Pagden
'Miss Pagden', believed to be Elizabeth Ann Pagden, sister of Mrs Robert Pagden
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Time for a table of Robert and Catherine's children!

NameInformation
Arthur Sampson*Born 1858 Batheaston. High-ranking official in Ceylon Civil Service and awarded the CMG** in 1917. Married Frances Emma Beatrice James. Died 1942 Exmouth, Devon.
Edward FrancisBorn 1860 Batheaston. Solicitor. Unmarried. Died 1935 London.
Trayton CharlesBorn 1862 Batheaston. Medical practitioner at Horley. Unmarried. Died 1935 Plymouth.
Mabel CatherineBorn 1863 Batheaston. Married James Yonge Woollcombe. Died 1947 Cheltenham.
Lionel KingBorn 1864 Epsom. Insurance clerk/actuary. Married 1896 Ellen Trelawney Rooke. Died 1952, then residing at West Byfleet.
Percy WilliamBorn 1865 Epsom. Bank/Stockbroker's clerk. Married 1889 Eleanor Mary Foley. Died 1903 County Lunatic Asylum, Ilford.
Cecil RobertBorn 1868 Epsom. Manager at the brewery. Unmarried. Died 1941, then living at West Hill, Epsom.
Ida MaryBorn 1870 Epsom. Married Cecil George Simmonds, who died at sea in 1914 but was normally resident in Ceylon. Died 1935 Streatham Hill.
Amy Sampson*Born 1872 Epsom. Married Thomas Arthur Thornton (tea planter in Ceylon). Died 1961 Crowborough, Sussex.
Gilbert HughBorn 1874 Epsom. Bank clerk. Unmarried. Died 1940 Berkhamsted, Herts.
Helen DorotheaBorn 1877 Epsom. Married Rev. Claud Henry Edmunds. Died 1952 Ealing.
Olive MargaretBorn 1879 Epsom. Married Duncan Macdonald Gordon of Burma. Died 1959 Watford.

* The Sampson name came from Catherine Pagden's mother, who was originally Elizabeth Ann King Sampson.
** Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George

Robert, his wife Catherine and sister-in-law Elizabeth Ann all died in the 1890s (1893, 1895 and 1899 respectively) and are buried in Epsom Cemetery (Grave A96A).

Frederic outlasted Robert for just over a decade, dying in 1904. He has already been dealt with in our article on the Moates family, as he married an Epsom girl, Frances Sarah Moates.

Frederic Pagden
Frederic Pagden
Photograph by Cuthbert John Hopkins, courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum

Loose ends

I mentioned earlier that Trayton Peter and Martha were buried in an altar tomb at St Martin's and various others are with them. Their daughter, Charlotte, who married her first cousin, James William Pagden of Frog Firle, died in 1857, aged 32, and is commemorated on the west side of the tomb; another daughter, Ann Elizabeth, who married Robert Chatfield of Greatham, Sussex, died at the age of 22 in 1838 and her inscription is on the north side.

We also have an interesting link-up with another article on this site. The Walters family of Ewell had long associations with Batheaston and, courtesy of Oliver Renwick, we acquired a history of Batheaston House: the history has a picture of Mrs Sophie Pagden (née Ferrari), who lived there for many years until her death in 1921. Her husband was Frederick John Pagden, son of John Pagden of Folkington and brother to Catherine Pagden (Mrs Robert Pagden) and Elizabeth Ann Pagden.

Linda Jackson 2018